What is Industrial–organizational Psychology ?
Industrial–organizational Psychology (sometimes referred to as I-O psychology, Occupational Psychology, organizational Psychology or Work Psychology) is characterized by the scientific study of human behaviors and applies the principle of psychology to improve the quality of the workplace and organizations.
There are three subfields in I-O psychology such as personal psychology, organizational psychology and human factors. Personal psychology are concerned with analyzing jobs, recruiting applicants, selecting employees, determining salary levels, training employees, and evaluation employee performance. Organizational psychology studies about issues of leadership, job satisfaction, employees’ motivation, organizational communication, conflict management, organizational change, and group process within an organization. Human factors focus on workplace design, human machine interaction, ergonomics, and physical fatigue and stress. Shortly, O-I psychologists work for organizations to improve productivity and efficiency for the workplace.
There are two way to describe about I-O psychology. One side is industrial, which focuses on the individual and the relationship to the organization or workplace such as job analysis, recruitment, selection, training, and performance appraisal.
One the other hand, the organizational side focuses on maximizing organizational performance and productivity including interpersonal topics such as motivation, leadership, group and team dynamics, and organizational development and change.
How does it work for organizations?
As a research and statistic courses are required for all psychology students, one of the main characteristics of I-O psychology is its extensive used of research, statistics and analysis to save organizations money. It may sound insensitive, but the most important thing is the bottom line. These savings can increase employee satisfaction and productivity and decrease turnovers and accidents.